OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY

Fish and Wildlife Habitat in Managed Forests Research Program Publications

PEER-REVIEWED LITERATURE

  • Adams, PW and AB Hairston. 1996. “Calling all experts: Using science to direct policy.” Journal of Forestry 94(4):27-30.
  • Bettinger, P, KN Johnson, and J Sessions. 1996. “Forest planning in an Oregon case study: Defining the problem and attempting to meet goals with a spatial-analysis technique.” Environmental Management 20:565-577.  
  • Bettinger, P, KN Johnson, and J Sessions. 1998. “Evaluating the association between alternative measures of cumulative watershed effects on a forested watershed in eastern Oregon.” Western Journal of Applied Forestry 13:15-22.
  • Bettinger, P, KN Johnson, and J Sessions. 1998. “Improving aquatic habitat conditions over time while producing wood products: An examination of options.” Journal of the American Water Resources Association 34:891-907.
  • Bettinger, P, J Sessions, and K Boston. 1997. “Using Tabu search to schedule timber harvests subject to wildlife goals for big game.” Ecological Modeling 94:111-123.
  • Bettinger, P, J Sessions, and KN Johnson. 1998. “Ensuring the compatibility of aquatic habitat and commodity production goals in eastern Oregon with a Tabu search procedure.” Forest Science 44:96-112.
  • Brandeis, TJ, M Newton, and EC Cole. 2001. “A comparison of overstory descriptors for describing competitive influence on understory conifer growth.” Forest Ecology and Management 152:149-157.
  • Brandeis, TJ, M Newton, and EC Cole. 2002. “Biotic injuries on conifer seedlings planted in forest understory environments.” New Forests 24:1-14.
  • Brandeis, TJ, M Newton, and EC Cole. 2001. “Underplanted conifer seedling survival and growth in thinned Douglas-fir stands.” Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31:302-312.
  • Brandeis, TJ, M Newton, GM Filip, and EC Cole. 2002. “Cavity-nester habitat development in artificially made Douglas-fir snags.” Journal of Wildlife Management 66:625-633.
  • Brunson, MW. 1996. “Human dimensions in silviculture.” Ch. 6 in. Natural Resource Management: The Human Dimension, AW Ewert, ed. Westview, Boulder, CO.  
  • Brunson, MW. 1996. “Integrating human habitat requirements into ecosystem management strategies: A case study.” Natural Areas Journal 16:100-107.
  • Brunson, MW and DK Reiter. 1996. “Effects of ecological information on judgments about scenic impacts of timber harvest.” Journal of Environmental Management 46:31-41.
  • Butts, SR and WC McComb. 2000. “Associations of forest-floor vertebrates with coarse woody debris in managed forests of western Oregon.” Journal of Wildlife Management 64:95-104.
  • Chambers, CL, T Carrigan, T Sabin, JC Tappeiner, II, and WC McComb. 1997. “Use of artificially created Douglas-fir snags by cavity-nesting birds.”  Western Journal of Applied Forestry 12:93-97.
  • Chambers, CL and WC McComb. 1997. “Effects of silvicultural treatments on wintering bird communities in the Oregon Coast Range.” Northwest Science 71:298-304.
  • Chambers, CL, WC McComb, and JC Tappeiner, II. 1999a. “Breeding bird responses to three silvicultural treatments in the Oregon Coast Range.” Ecological Applications 9:171-185.
  • Chambers, CL, WC McComb, JC Tappeiner, II, LD Kellogg, RL Johnson, and G Spycher. 1999b. “CFIRP: What we learned the first ten years.” The Forestry Chronicle 75:431-434.
  • Cole, EC. 1996. “Managing for mature habitat in production forests of western Oregon and Washington.” Weed Technology 10:422-428.
  • Hairston-Strang, AB and PW Adams. 1997. “Oregon’s streamside rules: Achieving public goals on private land.” Journal of Forestry 95(7):14-18.
  • Hairston-Strang, AB and PW Adams. 1998. “Potential large woody debris sources in riparian buffers after harvesting in Oregon, U.S.A.” Forest Ecology and Management 112:67-77.
  • Hairston-Strang, AB and PW Adams. 2000. “Riparian management area condition for timber harvests conducted before and after the 1994 Oregon Water Protection Rules.” Western Journal of Applied Forestry 15(3):147-153.
  • Han, H-S and LD Kellogg. 2000. “Damage characteristics in young Douglas-fir stands from commercial thinning with four timber harvesting systems.” Western Journal of Applied Forestry 15(1):27-33.
  • Han, H-S, LD Kellogg, GM Filip, and TD Brown. 2000. “Scar closure and future timber value losses from thinning damage in western Oregon.” Forest Products Journal 50(1):36-42.
  • Han, H-S, TW Steele, and LD Kellogg. 2003. “DamQuick: A New Method for Rapidly Assessing Residual Stand Damage During Partial Timber Harvests.” Western Journal of Applied Forestry 18(2):81-87.
  • Kellogg, LD, P Bettinger, and RM Edwards. 1996. “A comparison of logging planning, felling, and skyline yarding costs between clearcutting and five group-selection harvesting methods.” Western Journal of Applied Forestry 11:90-96.
  • McComb, W and D Lindenmayer. 1999. “Dying, dead, and down trees.” pp. 335-372 in Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems, ML Hunter, Jr., ed. Cambridge University Press.
  • Newton, M, R Willis, J Walsh, EC Cole, and S Chan. 1996. “Enhancing riparian habitat for fish, wildlife and timber in managed forests.” Weed Technology 10:429-438.
  • Romero, N, R Gresswell and J Li. 2005. “Changing patterns in coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) diet and prey in a gradient of deciduous canopies” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 62(8):1797-1807(11).
  • Smith, TG and CC Maguire. 2004. "Small-mammal relationships with down wood and antelope bitterbrush in ponderosa pine forests of central Oregon." Forest Science 50(5):711-728.
  • Walter, ST and CC Maguire. 2004 "Conifer response to three silvicultural treatments in the Oregon Coast Range. Canadian Journal of Forest Research." 34: 1967-1978
  • Wing, M and A Skaugset. 1998. “GIS casts a line: Examining salmon habitat in Oregon streams.” Geo Info Systems 8:36-41.
  • Wing, M and A Skaugset. 2002a. “Relationships of channel characteristics, land ownership, and land use patterns to large woody debris in western Oregon streams.” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59:796-807.
  • Zwieniecki, M and M Newton. 1999. “Influence of streamside cover and stream features on temperature trends in forested streams of western Oregon.” Western Journal of Applied Forestry 14:106-112.


Peer-reviewed Publications in Press or in Preparation

  • Garman, SL. “Effects of thinning young managed Douglas-fir stands on ground-dwelling vertebrates.” In prep.
  • Hagar, J and S Howlin. “Songbird community response to thinning of young Douglas-fir stands in the Oregon Cascades.” In prep.
  • Kellogg, LD, MM Hossain, and ED Olsen. “Mechanized thinning production and costs: Experience from the Willamette Young Stand Project.” In press.
  • Kellogg, LD, GV Milota, and M Miller, Jr. "Tractor thinning production and costs: Experience from the Willamette Young Stand Project." In review.
  • Maguire, CC and CL Chambers, eds. College of Forestry Integrated Research Project: Ecological and Socioeconomic Responses to Alternative Silvicultural Treatments, the First Decade. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis. In press.
  • Newton, M and EC Cole. "Harvesting impacts on understory regeneration in two-story Douglas-fir stands." In prep.
  • Robison, EG and M Pyles. Forest Road Fish Passage Design Guide. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis. In press.
  • Stoddard, MA and JP Hayes. "The influence of headwater stream amphibians at multiple spatial scales." In prep.
  • Walter, S.T. and C.C. Maguire. "Snags, cavity-nesting birds, and silvicultural treatments in western Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management." In prep.


Reports and Non-peer-reviewed Publications

  • Adams, PW. 1996. "Integrating research, policy, and practice for forest resource protection." pp. 123-127 in Forest Codes of Practice: Contributing to Environmentally Sound Forest Operations, DP Dykstra and R Heinrich, eds. FAO Forestry Paper 133, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • Adams, PW and MM Allen. 1997. Soil Bulk Density and Penetrometer Measurements after Harvester and Forwarder Traffic over Different Slash Depths in the Oregon Cascades. Project completion report, Weyerhaeuser Foundation Grant. Forest Engineering Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Adams, PW, L Kellogg, M Allen, and J Hogervorst. 1996. "Soil compaction and disturbance research on recent timber harvest operations in Oregon." p. 54 in Planning and Implementing Forest Operations to Achieve Sustainable Forests. Proceedings of a joint meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering and IUFRO Subject Group S3.04-00, 29 July - 1 Aug. 1996, Marquette, MI, CR Blinn and MA Thomson, eds. General Technical Report NC-GTR-186, USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station, St. Paul, MN.
  • Allen, MM, M Taratoot, and PW Adams. 1999. "Soil compaction and disturbance from skyline and mechanized partial cuttings for multiple resource objectives in western and northeastern Oregon, U.S.A." pp. 107-117 in Proceedings of the International Mountain Logging and 10th Pacific Northwest Skyline Symposium, 28 March - 1 April 1999, Corvallis, Oregon, J Sessions and W Chung, eds. Forest Engineering Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Anderson, C. 1996. "My talk to the forestry class." pp. 17-23 in Defining Social Acceptability in Ecosystem Management: A Workshop Proceedings, 23-25 June 1992, Kelso, Washington. MW Brunson, WLE Kruger, CB Tyler, and SA Schroeder, tech eds. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-369, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.
  • Boriack, NA, WD Edge, and EC Jensen. 1998. Forestry, Fish, and Wildlife Information Center Study. Final Report to the Technical Advisory Committee of the Forest Habitat Research Program, Corvallis, OR.
  • Brandeis, TE and C Cole. 1997. "Underplanting and competition in thinned coastal Douglas-fir." Abstract in the Proceedings of the IUFRO Section 1.14.00 Interdisciplinary Uneven-aged Silviculture Symposium. Corvallis, OR.
  • Chambers, CL and BE Fox. 1999. "Converting from even- to uneven-aged stand structure in Pacific Northwest coniferous forests: Implications for wildlife." pp. 534-541 in Proceedings of the IUFRO Interdisciplinary Uneven-aged Management Symposium, September 1997, WH Emmingham, compiler, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Garman, SL. 1998. Young Stand Thinning and Diversity Study: Post-treatment Assessment of Ground-dwelling Vertebrates. Report to Blue River Ranger District, Willamette National Forest, Blue River, OR.
  • Garman, SL. 2000. Thinning Effects on Ground-dwelling Vertebrates: Young Stand Thinning and Diversity Study. Administration Report to Cascade Center for Ecosystem Management, Willamette National Forest, Blue River, OR.
  • Garman, SL. 2001. Response of Ground-dwelling Vertebrates to Thinning Young Stands: The Young Stand Thinning and Diversity Study. Administration Report, Cascade Center for Ecosystem Management, Blue River Ranger District, Willamette National Forest, Blue River, OR.
  • Hagar, J. 1996. Pre-treatment Analysis of Wildlife-habitat Relationships in Young Managed Stands in the Oregon Cascade Range. Report to Blue River Ranger District, Willamette National Forest, Blue River, OR.
  • Hagar, J. 1999. Songbird Community Response to Thinning of Young Douglas-fir Stands in the Oregon Cascades—Second Year Post-treatment Results for the Willamette N.F., Young Stand Study. Report to Blue River Ranger District, Willamette National Forest, Blue River, OR.
  • Hagar, J and S Howlin. 2001. Songbird Community Response to Thinning of Young Douglas-fir Stands in the Oregon Cascades—Third Year Post-treatment Results for the Willamette N.F., Young Stand Thinning and Diversity Study. Administration Report, Cascade Center for Ecosystem Management, Willamette National Forest, Blue River, OR.  
  • Hairston, AB and PW Adams. 1996. “Landowner opinions of water protection rules in the Oregon Forest Practices Act.” pp. 110-117 in Proceedings of Symposium on Nonindustrial Private Forests: Learning from the Past, February 18-20, Washington, DC, M Baughman, ed. Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.
  • Han, H-S and LD Kellogg. 1997. “Comparison of damage characteristics to young Douglas-fir stands from commercial thinning using four timber harvesting systems.” pp. 76-85 in Proceedings of the 1997 Annual COFE Meeting, Rapid City, SD.
  • Hann, DW. 1998. Extending Southwest Oregon’s Douglas-fir Dominant Height Growth Equation to Older Ages. Research Contribution 18, Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Hayes, JP and MA Stoddard. 1999. “The influence of forest management on headwater stream amphibians at multiple spatial scales.” pp. 66-67 in The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research Program Annual Report 1999, J Erickson, ed. Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
  • Hayes, JP and MA Stoddard. 2000. “The influence of forest management on headwater stream amphibians at multiple spatial scales.” pp. 77-79 in The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research Program Annual Report 2000, J Erickson, ed. Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
  • Hayes, JP and MA Stoddard. 2001. “The influence of forest management on headwater stream amphibians at multiple spatial scales.” pp. 72-77 in The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research Program Annual Report 2001, J Erickson, ed. Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
  • Hayes, JP and MA Stoddard. 2001. “Research synthesis: The influence of forest management on headwater stream amphibians.” pp. 1-3 in CFER News (Newsletter), Volume 1, Number 2 (Fall), 2001. Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
  • Hayes, JP and DL Waldien. 1999. "Influence of coarse wood on small mammals in the Oregon Coast Range." pp. 34-36 in The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research Program Annual Report 1999, J Erickson, ed. Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
  • Hayes, JP and DL Waldien. 2000. "Influence of coarse wood on small mammals in the Oregon Coast Range." pp. 40-42 in The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research Program Annual Report 2000, J Erickson, ed. Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
  • Hayes, JP and DL Waldien. 2001. "Influence of coarse wood on small mammals in the Oregon Coast Range." pp. 31-34 in The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research Program Annual Report 2001, J Erickson, ed. Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
  • Hossain, MM and ED Olsen. 1998. "Comparison of commercial thinning production and costs between silvicultural treatments, multiple sites, and logging systems in Central Western Oregon." Poster Presentation at the annual COFE meeting in Portland, OR. 14 pp.
  • Keim, RF, AB Price, TS Hardin, AE Skaugset, DS Bateman, RE Gresswell, and SD Tesch. 2004. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Manuals for Stream Habitat Improvement in the Pacific Northwest. Research Contribution 44, Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 32 pp.
  • Kellogg, LD, M Miller, Jr., and ED Olsen. 1999. Skyline Thinning Production and Costs: Experience from the Willamette Young Stand Project. Research Contribution 21, Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Kellogg, LD, GV Milota, and B Stringham. 1998. Logging Planning and Layout Costs for Thinning: Experience from the Willamette Young Stand Project. Research Contribution 20, Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Maas-Hebner, KG and BA Schrader. 2001. The effects of Silvicultural Activities on Wildlife and Fish Populations in Oregon and the Pacific Northwest: An Annotated Bibliography from 1960 to 1999. Research Contribution 32, Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • McComb, W, J Tappeiner, L Kellogg, C Chambers, and R Johnson. 1994. "Stand management alternatives for multiple resources: Integrated management experiments." pp. 71-86 in Expanding Horizons of Forest Ecosystem Management: Proceedings of the Third Habitat Futures Workshop, MH Huff, LK Norris, J Brian, and NL Wilkin, coordinators. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-336, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.
  • Newton, M and EC Cole. 1998. Hardwood Riparian Forest Rehabilitation and its Impacts. Final Report to Starker Forests Inc., Weyerhaeuser Co., Georgia Pacific Co., Cascades Timber Consultants Inc., and Oregon Department of Forestry, Forest Practices Division, Corvallis, OR.
  • Newton M, and M Zwieniecki. 1996. Temperature and Streamflow Regulation by Streamside Cover. Final report submitted to Oregon Department of Forestry, Forest Practices Division, Corvallis, OR.
  • Olsen, ED, MM Hossain, and ME Miller. 1998. Statistical Comparison of Methods Used in Harvesting Work Studies. Research Contribution 23, Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Taratoot, M, PW Adams, and AE Skaugset. 1997. Assessing Effects of Timber Harvest on Riparian Zone Features and Functions for Aquatic and Wildlife Habitat. Project completion report to the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc., Cooperative Agreement - FIS Index J0097A. Forest Engineering Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Tucker, G, M Duane, J Mayo, and L Skiels. 2001. Response of Vegetation to Alternative Silvicultural Thinning in the Central Oregon Cascades: Analysis of Third Year Post Harvest Data from Willamette National Forest Young Stand Thinning and Diversity Study. Administration Report to Cascade Center for Ecosystem Management, Willamette National Forest, Blue River, OR.
  • Wing, M and A Skaugset. 2002b. Analysis of Western Oregon Aquatic Habitat Conditions at a Habitat Unit Scale. Report submitted to OFIC, Oregon State University, Corvallis.


MS Theses and PhD Dissertations

  • Allen, MM. 1997. “Soil compaction and disturbance following a thinning of second-growth Douglas-fir with a cut-to-length and a skyline system in the Oregon Cascades.” MFor professional paper, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.  

  • Babbs, KA. 2000. “Wild perspectives.” MAIS paper, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Balfour, RCD. 1996. “Interactions between near-urban forest management and recreation: A pre- and post-harvest survey.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Bettinger, P. 1996. “Spatial analysis techniques for ensuring the compatibility of land management activities and aquatic habitat quality in eastern Oregon.” PhD dissertation, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.  
  • Brandeis, TJ. 1999. “Underplanting and competition in thinned Douglas-fir.” PhD dissertation, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Brett, TA. 1997. “Habitat associations of woodpeckers at multiple scales in managed forests of the southern Oregon Cascades.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Burback, CD. 1998. “Seeing the forest for the trees: A manual for the OSU College of Forestry’s self-guided silviculture kit.” MS paper, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Butts, SR. 1997. “Associations of forest floor vertebrates with coarse woody debris in managed forests, western Oregon Cascades.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Chambers, CL. 1996. “Response of terrestrial vertebrates to three silvicultural treatments in the Central Oregon Coast Range.” PhD dissertation, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Feen, JS. 1997. “Winter den sites of northern flying squirrels in Douglas-fir forests of the south-central Oregon Cascades.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Hairston, AB. 1996. “Response to Water Protection Rule Changes in the Oregon Forest Practices Act: Landowner/Operator Opinions and Streamside Conditions.” PhD dissertation, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Han, H-S. 1997. “Damage to young Douglas-fir stands from commercial thinning with various timber harvesting systems and silvicultural prescriptions: Characteristics, sampling strategy for assessment and future value loss.” PhD dissertation, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Hossain, MM. 1998. “Young stand thinning in western Oregon: Cost comparison of harvesting alternatives and comparison of time study techniques.” PhD dissertation, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • House, MR. 2001. “Countersunk culvert hydraulics for upstream juvenile fish passage.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Ketchum, JS. 1995. “Douglas-fir, grand fir and plant community regeneration in three silvicultural systems in western Oregon.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Lennette, M. 2003. “Using a heuristic programming method for incorporating wildlife habitat contraints into spatial harvest scheduling on the Elliott State Forest.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Martinez-Ben, J. 2000. Tillage of compacted soil in a thinned Douglas-fir stand in Western Oregon: Soil density and residual tree growth seven years after treatment. MFor professional paper. College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • McDade, KA. 2001. “Habitat relationships of small terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates in managed forests in the southern Oregon Cascades.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Raggon, MF. 2010. "Seasonal Variability in Diet and Consumption by Cottid and Salmonid Fishes in Headwater Streams in Western Oregon, USA, MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, College of Forestry.
  • Reba, ML. 2002. “The design and evaluation of three ‘stream simulation’ culverts in south central Oregon.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.  
  • Sharer, BK. 1999. “Heuristic solution techniques for a spatial harvest scheduling problem involving wildlife habitat and timber income.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Smith, T. 2002. “Small mammal relationships with downed wood and antelope bitterbrush in central Oregon.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Som, NA.  2009. "On the Estimation and Application of Spatial and Temporal Autocorrelation in Headwater Streams." PhD Dissertation, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Stoddard, MA. 2001. “The influence of forest management on headwater stream amphibians at multiple spatial scales.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Takahashi, Mayumi. 2003. “The Land-Water Interface: Patterns of Riparian Vegetation in an Oregon Coast Range System” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Thompson, RL. 1996. “Home range and habitat use of western red-backed voles in mature coniferous forests in the Oregon Cascades.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Walsh, JBS. 1996. “Effects of streamside riparian forest management on Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera community structure in four western Oregon streams.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Waldien, DL. 2004. (expected). “The influence of silviculture and downed wood treatments on small mammal populations in the Oregon Coast Range.” PhD dissertation, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Walter, S. 2003. “Snag longevity, bird use of cavities, and conifer response across three silvicultural treatments in the Oregon Coast Range.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • White, D. 1996. “Hydraulic performance of countersunk culverts in Oregon.” MS thesis, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Zenner, EK. 1998. “A new index for describing the structural complexity of forests.” PhD dissertation, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis.


Web-based References

  • Weikel, JM and JP Hayes. 2001. Habitat Use by Snag-associated Species: A Bibliography for Species Occurring in Oregon and Washington. Research Contribution 33, Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis. Available on the web:
    http://www.cof.orst.edu/cof/pub/home/rc/rc33.htm